This legislation followed the corresponding Section from the former Soviet Unionwhich only specifically criminalised anal intercourse between men. People who wanted to change their gender had to receive a diagnosis of "gender identity disorder" involving several medical tests and a day psychiatric evaluation.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Background In Kazakhstan, as in many other countries, a transformation of the traditional stereotypes of reproductive behavior, and change the types of family relationships is occurred. The objective of this study was to identify the indicators of reproductive units and the motives for having children in the family.
Designed questionnaires were used to study the regulation of fertility in young families, and women's views about the ideal, desired, and expected number of children per family. The survey covered respondents aged less than 39 years. Expected number of children in the family depends on living conditions.
The average expected number of children per family increases with improvement of living conditions and with increases in income.
By mathematical formula that based on a poll can be calculated probability of birth of each child in the family. Reproductive attitudes of Astana women depend on age, educational level, income, professional employment, marital status, and ethnicity.
The findings confirm the hypothesis that family plans are largely exposed to specific conditions of life. Reproductive behavior, Ideal, Children, Family, Kazakhstan Introduction In recent years, thanks to the reforms conducted in Kazakhstan, there have been some positive developments, manifested in increasing fertility, reducing maternal and infant mortality, reducing the number of abortions 1 — 3.
Current demographic situation in Kazakhstan is characterized by a number of problems. In Kazakhstan, as in many other countries, a transformation of the traditional stereotypes of reproductive behavior, change the types of family relationships is occurred.
These trends negatively affect the birth rate, against the backdrop of the gradual aging of the population and can lead to worsening demographic situation and jeopardize economic and political independence of the Kazakh nation in the future.
Such a situation is largely due to the changed over the past decade of the social situation of women, the transformation of its value orientations and social-role attitudes, resulting in the function of reproduction is increasingly fades into the background as well as its implementation often leads to a decrease in both the personal and social status women.
The aim of the study was to determine indicators of reproductive units women's views about the expected, desired and ideal number of childrenand the motives for having children in the family.
Research tools included questions, which are indicators of reproductive sociological orientations of the respondents.
With the help of the questionnaire respondents aged less than 39 years were interviewed. Age of respondents in this case was chosen according to recommendations of Russian authors 4.
Selection of the required number of respondents was conducted randomly in the form of a single-stage area sampling, and was contained the anonymous nature in compliance with confidentiality and ethics. The statistical significance of differences in the mean values of the study variables was tested by one-way ANOVA.
Results We attempted to find the relationship between the expected number of children and women's education Table 1. Given that the number of respondents with primary education was small, we have analyzed a group of women with secondary, vocational and higher education. The greatest value of the average expected number of children found in women with higher education 1.
Expected number of children depending on the level of women's education Education Average expected number of children 0.Many people have had difficult pasts; for example, many women one meets through work are single mothers and many people’s families have been forced to relocate to Astana for work.
For many, transition has not resulted in a better life. LGBT people in Kazakhstan face discrimination and prejudice on the grounds of their sexual orientation or gender identity during the course of their everyday lives.
Manifestation of negative attitudes toward LGBT people, such as social exclusion, taunting, and violence, often cause the victims physical, psychological and emotional harm.
"This is a good opportunity for people from different parts of the world to come and try to exchange attitudes that influence having more rational relationships in the world, simply for peace to. People, attitudes and the Ritz Carlton, Astana I was in Astana recently working on strategy with board directors of Kazakhstan state industries.
What a wonderfully iconoclastic place Astana is. New online store seeks to change Kazakh attitudes towards e-commerce By Lyazzat Shatayeva in Business on 11 February ALMATY – Two young Kazakh entrepreneurs have launched a home appliances and electronics store called benjaminpohle.com, which they hope will improve the quality of Kazakhstan’s e-commerce industry.
Attitudes of Astana people to establishment of unique state language in the office work in Kazakhstan Instructor: Aigul Kaikenova , Tsoy Andrey , Magzumova Umut BAE-1, Summer-1 Acknowledgement.